What Are The Different Types Of Muktzeh?

The Daily Halacha Moment - Types Of Muktzeh 📱⚽


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Question:

What are the different types of Muktzeh?


Answer:

There are several categories of muktzeh, each having their own stringencies and leniencies:


1. Kli she’melachto le’hetter – Objects of permitted usage. This refers to items that are used for an activity that is permitted to be done on Shabbat. These items are generally permitted to be moved for any purpose. However, the items may not be moved for no purpose at all. [1]


2. Kli she’melachto le’issur – Objects of prohibited usage. This refers to items that are primarily used for doing something that is prohibited on Shabbat, even though they also can be used for a permitted purpose. When needed for a permissible act, such as if one needs a hammer in order to open a nut, it is permitted to use it. This is known as a need called “tzorech gufo.” Another case where it would be permitted to move is “tzorech mekomo,” if one requires the place on which the item is resting. [2] The details of these exceptions and additional instances when a kli she’melachto le’issur may be moved will be discussed in a future Halacha Moment at greater length. [3]


3. Muktzeh machmat chisaron kis – Muktzeh due to fear of monetary loss. This is the type of item that is primarily used for a forbidden activity on Shabbat, and it is a specialized utensil that the owner does not use for other purposes out of concern that the item will become damaged.[4] For instance, a knife that is used for slaughtering animals would fall under this category of muktzeh.


4. Muktzeh machmat gufo – Inherently muktzeh. This refers to items that inherently, by their very nature, are not prepared for Shabbat use. For example, a rock falls under this category since it is a functionless object on the onset of Shabbat, and is therefore muktzeh. Even though one could technically use such an item for different purposes, if one did not set it aside before Shabbat for a particular use, then it will remain useless and considered muktzeh. [5]


5. Muktzeh machmat issur – Muktzeh due to a prohibition. This refers to an item that cannot be used due to transgressing a prohibition. This differs from something that is a kli she’melachto le’issur, since something that is muktzeh machmat issur, may not even be used during the weekday, and is therefore more stringent and may not be moved on Shabbat letzorech mekomo or letzorech gufo. [6]


6. Muktzeh machmat mitzvah – Muktzeh due to a mitzvah. This refers to an object that has been designated for use in the performance of a mitzvah. For instance, items that are used for a sukkah decoration, even if it is edible, is considered muktzeh.


7. Nolad – Something that is newly created. This refers to an item that comes into existence on Shabbat or Yom Tov. For example, an egg that is laid is considered nolad.


8. Bassis ledavar ha’assur – A non-muktzeh item that is used as a base for a muktzeh item. Since the item that is being used as a base under the muktzeh item, then it assumes the same status as the muktzeh item itself.


Sources:

[1]. Shulchan Aruch 308:4. See also Gemara, Shabbat 124a.

[2]. Shulchan Aruch 308:3.

[3]. Shulchan Aruch 308:7.

[4]. Shulchan Aruch 308:1. See also Gemara, Shabbat 123a.

[5]. Shulchan Aruch 308:7.

[6]. See Shulchan Aruch 308:16. See also Gemara, Shabbat 140a.


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