Updated: Jan 5, 2022
The Daily Halacha Moment - Torah Reading On Shabbat 📜
״כל השונה הלכות בכל יום - מובטח לו שהוא בן העולם הבא״ (נידה עג ע״א, מגילה כח:)
“Anyone who studies Halachot every day is guaranteed that he is destined for the world-to-come” (Megilla 28b, Niddah 73a)
When may a congregation read the Torah?
Who's obligated in the Torah reading every week?
One may only read the Torah with the berachot if there are ten men, who are over the age of Bar Mitzvah, present. Of the ten people present there must be at least six people who have not yet heard the keriat hatorah in order to be able to recite the berachot. 
The obligation of reading the Torah with a minyan, is an obligation on the community, and it is considered a rabbinical obligation.
Similarly, women are not obligated in listening to the keriat HaTorah. 
When the Torah is being read, one should focus on the Torah reading and follow along and one should not speak even about Torah topics.  However, one who has trouble hearing, and cannot hear the Torah reading, may learn other topics quietly while the Torah is being read.
. Shulchan Aruch 143:1.
. Halachah Berurah, vol. 7, p. 225.
. See Yabia Omer 7:9; Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 2, p. 221; Halachah Berurah, vol. 7, p. 95; Teshuvot VeHanhagot 1:148; Minchat Shlomo, vol. 2, 4:15; Tzitz Eliezer 18:5.
. See in Rambam, Teffilah 12:1 who states that the institution of reading the Torah publicly was made by Moshe Rabbenu. This is also mentioned in the Yerushalmi, Megillah 4:1 and Talmud Bavli in Bava Kamma 82a. See also in Birkei Yosef 47:8; Aruch HaShulchan 282:1; Yechaveh Daat 1:85. This is also implied by the Shulchan Aruch 146:2 who states that only Parashat Zachor and Parah may be a Torah obligation, implying that other keriat hatorah are not.
. Mishnah Berurah 282:12; Yechaveh Daat 4:23, in footnote on p. 130; Be’er Moshe, vol. 8, 85:2.
. Shulchan Aruch 146:2. See also at length on this subject in Halachah Berurah, vol. 7, pp 263-269.
. Torah Lishmah §42; Yalkut Yosef, Shabbat, book 1, vol. 4, p. 344.
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