Updated: Dec 8, 2021
The Daily Halacha Moment - Singles, Parents Not Home, Wife Not Home, Daughters Lighting With Mother & Shabbat Candles🕯
״כל השונה הלכות בכל יום - מובטח לו שהוא בן העולם הבא״ (נידה עג ע״א, מגילה כח:)
“Anyone who studies Halachot every day is guaranteed that he is destined for the world-to-come” (Megilla 28b, Niddah 73a)
Do single men and women light Shabbat candles?
What does one do if ones wife is not home?
Who lights Shabbat Candles when parents aren't home?
May a daughter light Shabbat Candles with her mother?
Both Men and women who are not married and living on thier own are obligated to light Shabbat candles with a berachah.
Furthermore; this is also the case if a man’s wife will not be home for Shabbat, he must light, even if she will be lighting candles in the place that she is staying for Shabbat.
If the mother of the home is not present, the father of the household should light candles, even if one has a daughter who is over the age of Bat-Mitzvah. This is even the case if one’s married daughter is over for Shabbat. If both of one’s parents are not home for Shabbat, then the eldest female child who is over the age of bat mitzvah should light the candles at home for the household. If she is under bat mitzvah, then a boy who is the oldest takes precedence and should light on behalf of the household. 
Similarly, If one wants to light an additional candle, even though her mother will be lighting that Shabbat, then she should light without a berachah after her mother lights. It is preferable that she should hear the berachah from her mother and then she should light her own candles afterwards. This is even the case if she wants to light in a different room than her mother is lighting. She may not even recite a berachah upon her own lighting even if she has intention to not fulfill her obligation through her mother’s lighting.
. Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 163; Yalkut Yosef, Shabbat, book 1, vol. 2, p. 61.
. Mekabtziel, Noach, 2:7; Yalkut Yosef, Shabbat, book 1, vol. 2, p. 60; Orchot Rabbenu, vol. 1, p. 108.
. Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 202 in the footnotes; Shulchan Shlomo, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 137 and 152.
. Yechaveh Daat 2:32; Halichot Olam, vol. 3, p. 34; Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 194; Yalkut Yosef, Shabbat, book 1, vol. 2, p. 61; Halachah Berurah, vol. 15, p. 264. See also Ruach Chaim 263:2.
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