Accepting Shabbat in Tefillah or with the City

Updated: Dec 8, 2021

The Daily Halacha Moment - Accepting Shabbat in Tefillah or with the City 🏙


״כל השונה הלכות בכל יום - מובטח לו שהוא בן ‎העולם הבא״ (נידה עג ע״א, מגילה כח:)


“Anyone who studies Halachot every day is guaranteed that he is destined for the world-to-come” (Megilla 28b, Niddah 73a)


Question:

When in Friday night Teffilah does one accept Shabbat?

Does one need to accept Shabbat when everyone in the city accepted Shabbat?


Answer:

According to the Shulchan Aruch 261:4, after reciting barechu or Mizmor Shir Leyom HaShabbat, one accepts upon himself Shabbat and can no longer perform melachah, even if it is still day time.[1] According to the Arizal even through reciting the words “Boee Kallah” at the end of Lechah Dodi, one accepts upon himself the Shabbat. [2]


If most of the people in the city that one is residing in for Shabbat has already accepted Shabbat, then one must accept the Shabbat along with them, even if one does not want to accept Shabbat yet and even if one is not in the bet hakenesset at the time. [3] However, if there is more than one bet hakenesset in the city then they do not have to accept Shabbat

along with the rest of the city, even if most of the city will be accepting Shabbat early. [4]

Even if there is only one synagogue in the city, but most of the Jews in the city do not attend on Friday night because it is not in walking distance, then one does not have to accept Shabbat along with the synagogue. [5]

Similarly, even if one regularly prays in a specific synagogue, and even if one is a member there, one does not have to accept Shabbat at the time that the synagogue does, provided that there are other synagogues in the city that will be accepting Shabbat at the regular time and not early. [6]


Sources:

[1]. Halichot Olam, vol. 3, p. 71; Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, pp. 294-295, 334; ibid., Avelut, vol. 3, p. 33.

[2]. See Ben Ish Chai, Vayera 2:3. It is proper to be stringent like the opinion of the Arizal, especially if one had intention to accept the Shabbat through the recitation of Boee Kallah. See also in Yalkut Yosef, Shabbat, book 1, vol. 2, p. 456.

[3]. Shulchan Aruch 263:12; Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 294.

[4]. Magen Avraham 263:24 in the name of the Kenesset HaGedolah; Mishnah Berurah 263:51; Aruch HaShulchan 263:20; Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 295; Halachah Berurah, vol. 15, p. 389. The Chazon Ovadia points out that a minyan that is held in someone’s home on Friday night does not qualify as a separate bet hakenesset and they must accept the Shabbat along with the rest of the city. See also in Halachah Berurah, ibid., p. 393.

[5]. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 80 in the name of Chacham Ovadia Yosef in Ohr Torah, Sivan 5755, §107. See also in Halachah Berurah, vol. 15, pp. 395-397 who adds that this is judged by people who are shomer Shabbat, and not by the number of Jews in the city including those who do not keep Shabbat. See also in Minchat Yitzchak, vol. 1, 24:4 and Shulchan Shlomo 263:20, footnote 21.

[6]. Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 295. See also in Halachah Berurah, vol. 15, p. 390.


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