The Mitzvah Of Tosefet Shabbat

Updated: Dec 8, 2021

The Daily Halacha Moment - Tosefet Shabbat 🕒


״כל השונה הלכות בכל יום - מובטח לו שהוא בן ‎העולם הבא״ (נידה עג ע״א, מגילה כח:)


“Anyone who studies Halachot every day is guaranteed that he is destined for the world-to-come” (Megilla 28b, Niddah 73a)


Question:

What is Tosefet Shabbat?


Answer:

It is a mitzvah to accept Shabbat earlier that it actually begins. [1] This can be done even a few minutes before shkiyah. [2] This mitzvah is known as Tosefet Shabbat. [3]

Both men and women are obligated in the mitzvah of Tosefet Shabbat. [4]

One may accept Shabbat as early as plag haminchah (which is one and a quarter halachic hours before shkiyah). [5]

Similarly, one can accept Shabbat even though one did not enunciate his acceptance of Shabbat, merely refraining from melachah suffices. However, it is preferable to accept Shabbat by actually stating so. [6]


Sources:

[1]. Shulchan Aruch, siman 261; Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 182; Halichot Olam, vol. 3, p. 74. See also in Chazon Ovadia, ibid., pp. 264-265 and in vol. 2, p. 12; Halichot Olam, vol. 3, p. 10 who states that according to most poskim the mitzvah of “Tosefet Shabbat” is a biblical obligation. See also in Halachah Berurah, vol. 14, Otzrot Yosef, siman 3-4.

[2]. See in Yalkut Yosef, Shabbat, vol. 1, book 2, p. 148 who states that one who did not yet accept the Tosefet Shabbat before shkiyah, may also rely on the opinions who state that one can accept Tosefet Shabbat during Ben Hashmashot. See also in Halachah Berurah, vol. 14, Otzrot Yosef, siman 5.

[3]. See in Aruch HaShulchan 242:40 who states that fulfilling the mitzvah of Tosefet Shabbat serves as a protection from harmful spirits.

[4]. See Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 289 who states that even though the Minchat Chinuch, siman 313 states that it is possible that women are not obligated in the mitzvah of Tosefet Shabbat, nevertheless, many Rishonim, such as Tosafot Ketuvot 47a, and Acharonim, such as the Pri Megadim, M.Z. 608:1 and others clearly state that women are also obligated in Tosefet Shabbat. See also in Yabia Omer, vol. 8, O.C. 29:6; Halachah Berurah, vol. 14, Otzrot Yosef, siman 9; Mishpetei Uziel, O.C., vol. 1, 22:1.

[5]. Shulchan Aruch 263:4; ibid. 261:2; Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 181.

[6]. Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 1, p. 266; Halichot Olam, vol. 3, p. 72; Yalkut Yosef, Shabbat, vol. 1, book 2, p. 148; Halachah Berurah, vol. 14, Otzrot Yosef, siman 8; Ohr LeTzion, vol. 2, 18:2; Shevet HaLevi 4:27; ibid. 10:50.


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