The Melachah Of Mavir
The Daily Halacha Moment - Melachah Of Mavir 🔥
״כל השונה הלכות בכל יום - מובטח לו שהוא בן עולם הבא״ (נידה עג ע״א, מגילה כח:)
“Anyone who studies Halachot every day is guaranteed that he is destined for the world-to-come” (Megilla 28b, Niddah 73a)
What is the melachah of Mavir (Kindling a fire)?
The melachah of Mavir was to kindle a fire in order to heat the vats of dyes that were used to dye the curtains of the Mishkan.  Some commentaries state that it was needed for melting the metal that was used for parts of the Mishkan. 
The melachah of Mavir is defined as any manner of kindling, fueling or spreading a fire. This includes:
a. Striking a match or lighter. 
b. Lighting a fire with a magnifying glass. 
c. Lighting a fire by rubbing two sticks together.
d. Causing sparks in order to ignite a fire. 
e. Adding wood to a fire. 
f. Adding oil to a cup that is fueling a wick. 
g. Raising the gas to an already lit fire. 
h. Stoking coals. 
i. Blowing on an ember to make a fire larger. 
j. Tilting oil in a cup in order to fuel a lit wick. 
The biblical prohibited of Mavir is transgressed if one lights a fire for the purpose of cooking, heating, or for light.  Even if one is only lighting the fire in order to benefit from the ashes that are produced, it is considered a transgression of Mavir.  If one did not light a fire for any of these purposes, then it is only rabbinically prohibited. 
. Talmud Bavli, Shabbat, 73a.
. Tosafot, Shabbat, 94a, “Rav Shimon.”
. See also in Rav Pe’alim, O.C. 2:53 who states that if one struck a match and only spark came out but it did not ignite the match, then one only has performed a rabbinical prohibition.
. Meorei Esh, vol. 2, p. 474 and p. 482.
. Simply creating sparks that cannot ignite a fire is only rabbinically prohibited. See Pri Megadim, 502:47, M.Z. 1; Chazon Ish, O.C. 50:9; Har Tzvi, O.C., 1:150; Rav Pe’alim O.C. 2:53; Minchat Yitzchak, vol. 2, 16:16; Tzitz Eliezer, 1:20, 1:15; Minchat Shlomo, vol. 1, 10:7.
. Rambam, Shabbat, 12:2.
. Talmud Bavli, Betza 22a; Rosh; Rambam, Shabbat, 12:2.
. Yalkut Yosef, Shabbat, vol. 5, p. 182.
. Talmud Bavli, Kritut 20a; Talmud Yerushalmi, Shabbat 2:5.
. See Yabia Omer, vol. 1, 21:18.
. Chazon Ovadia, Shabbat, vol. 6, p. 105.
. Rambam, Shabbat, 12:1.
. See Menuchat Ahavah, vol. 3, 25:1.
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